Ana Carolina Oliveira Duarte, Ray de Souza Rodrigues


The rare earth elements (REE) has received great importance in recent years and, consequently, are the focus of research in several areas. This fact is due to its great potential and essentiality in industrial activity, mainly in the case of high technology. Also, agriculture receives REE, directly or indirectly, via phosphate fertilization that has been accumulating in the environment. Therefore, there is a current concern in terms of applied levels, as well as environmental effects, both for plants and humans. Reference concentrations for these elements have not yet been defined since their effects have also not been fully elucidated. This review aims to show the history, use, current panorama, and the stage of research related to the effects of REE in different species and their level of emergent contamination.


Cério. Poluente emergente. Fertilizantes fosfatados. Lantânio.

Texto completo:



ALONSO, E. et al. Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies. Environment Science Technology, Berkeley, v. 46, n. 6, p 3406–14, 2010.

ANTONIASSI, J.L. et al. In: Deng F. (Ed.). Assesment and characterization of REE minerals from na alkali-cabonatitic complex. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM). Mianyang, China: Springer Geochemistry /Mineralogy, p.173-186, 2015.

CAO, X.D., et al. Determination of trace rare earth elements in plant and soil samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. International Journal Environment Analytic Chemistry, London, v. 76, n. 4, p.295–309, 2000.

CARPENTER, D., et al. Uptake and effects of six rare Earth elements (REEs) on selected native and crop species growing in contaminated soils. PLos One. San Francisco, p.10-21, 2015.

CHATURVEDI, N., GANNAVARAPU, R., KUMAR N. Effect of lanthanum on the growth and physiological activities of Zea mays, Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo. International Journal Environment Science New Delhi, v. 4, n. 5, p. 653-659, 2014.

CHEN Z. Global rare earth resources and scenarios of future rare earth industry. Journal Rare Earths, Amsterdam, v. 29, n.1, p. 1–6, 2011.

CHEN, Z.Y. Accumulation and toxicity of rare earth elements in brain and their

potential effects on health. Rural. Eco. Environ., v. 21,p: 72-73, 2005.

CHEN, Z.Y., ZHU, X.D.Accumulation of rare earth elements in bone and its

toxicity and potential hazard to health. J. Ecol. Rural. Environ.,v. 24,p: 88-91, 2008.

EL-RAMADY, H.R.H. Ecotoxicology of rare earth elements: Ecotoxicology of rare earth elements within soil and plant environments. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengsellsellshaft & Co. KG, 2010.

FERNANDEZ, V. Rare-earth elements market: A historical and financial perspective. Resources Policy, Amsterdam, v. 53, p. 26–45, mar 2017.

GUO, B.S. Present and Future Situation of Rare Earth Research in Chinese Agronomy, In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Rare Earth Development and Applications, Science Press: Beijing, p.1522–1526, 1995.

GONZALEZ, V. et al. Environmental fate and ecotoxicity of lanthanides: Are they a uniform group beyond chemistry? Environ. Int.v.71, p:148–157, 2014.

GONZALEZ, V. et al. Lanthanide ecotoxicity: first attempt to measure environmental risk for aquatic organisms. Environ. Pollut., v. 199, p:139-147, 2015.

GUO, S. F., et al. Effect of La (III) on some physicological index and eltrastructure of honeysuclçe (Lonicera japônica Thunb.). Adv. Mater. Res, Zurich, v.864-867, p. 295-298, 2014.

HERRMANN, H. et al. Aquatic ecotoxicity of lanthanum - a review and an attempt to derive water and sediment quality criteria. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.,v. 124,p. 213-238, 2016.

HIRANO S, SUZUKI KT. Exposure, metabolism, and toxicity of rare earths and related

compounds. Environ. Health Perspect., v.104, p:85–95, 1996.

HU, Z. et al. Physiological and biochemical effects of rare earth elements on plants and their agricultural significance: A Review. Journal Plant Nutrition, Oxfordshire, v.27, n.1, p.183–220, 2004.

HUANG, X.W. et al. Development status and research progress in rare earth industry in China. Chin. J.Rare Met., v.31, p. 279-288, 2007.

IUPAC. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations. Cambridge, 2005.

JORJANI E, SHAHBAZI M. The production of rare earth elements group via tributyl phosphate extraction and precipitationstripping using oxalic acid. Arab. J. Chem. King Saud University, Riyadh, v. 2, p. 433–59, 2012.

KHAN, S. B et al. Exploration of CeO2 nanoparticles as a chemi-sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental applications. Science Total Environment, Amsterdam, v.409, n.15, p.2987-2992, 2011.

LAURENT, A. Commodities at a glance: Special issue on rare earths, n. 5. UNCTAD: Geneva, 2014.

LIU, D., WANG, X., CHEN, Z. Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants. Protein and Peptide Letters, Gainesville, v.19, n. 2, p. 198–202, 2012.

LIU, H., TAN, D., HU, F., Rare earhts:shade of gray. Can China continue to fuel your global clean & smart future? Hong Kong: CWR, 2016.

LUO, J., ZHANG J., WANG Y. Changes in endogenous hormone levels and redox status during enhanced adventitious rooting by rare earth element neodymium of Dendrobium densiflorum shoot cuttings. Journal Rare Earths, Amsterdam, v. 26, n.6, p. 869–74, 2008.

MANCHERI, N., World trade in rare earths, Chinese export restrictions, and implications. Resource Policy, Amsterdam, v. 46, 262–271, 2015.

MAO, L.J.,et al.., The rare Earth element compositions of sediments from the loess tableland in the Liyang Plain, southern China: implications for provenance and weathering intensity. Environ. Earth Sci., v.62, p.1609-1617, 2011.

MARTINS, T.S.; ISOLANI, P.C. Terras raras: aplicações industriais e biológicas. Química Nova, v. 28, p. 111-117, 2005.

MIGASZEWSKI ZM, GAŁUSZKA A. The characteristics, occurrence, and geochemical behavior of rare earth elements in the environment: A Review. Crit. Rev. Environment Science Technology, Oxford, 45, n. 5, p. 429– 471, 2014.

MULLER, M. A., SCHWEIZER, D., & SEILER, V. Wealth Effects of Rare Earth Prices and China’s Rare Earth Elements Policy. Journal of Business Ethics, v. 138, n.4, p.627–648, 2016.

OLIVEIRA, C. et al. Bioaccumulation and effects of lanthanum on growth and mitotic index in soybean plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 122, p.136–144, 2015.

PAGANO G et al. Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-Knowledge gaps and research prospects. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf, v. 115, p:40–48, 2015.

PANDA, R., et al. Leaching of rare earth metals (REMs) from Korean monazite concentrate. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Amsterdam, v.20, p. 2035-2042, 2014.

PROTANO, G.; RICCOBONO, F. High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu-Pb-Zn mining area. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), v. 117, n. 3, p. 499-514, jan. 2002.

RAMOS, S. J. et al. Rare Earth Elements in the Soil Environment. Current Pollution Reports, Amsterdam, v.2, n.1, p.28–50, 2016.

RAMOS, S. J. Rare earth elements in raw materials and products of the phosphate fertilizer industry in South America: Content, signature, and crystalline phases. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Amsterdam, v.168, p. 177-186, 2016.

RIM, K.T. Effects of rare earth elements on the environment and human health: A literature review. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, Berlin, v.8, n3, p.189–200, 2016.

SHYAM, R. AERY, N. Effect od cerium on growth, dry matter prodution, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activities of cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L.) Walp.). Journal Soil Science Plant Nutrition, Temuco, v.12, n. 1, p, 1-14, 2012.

SMITH, B. et al. The bioaccessibility of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in tropical soils from Mukono District, Uganda. J. Geol. Soc., v.157, p:885–891, 2000.

TYLER, G. Rare earth elements in soil and plant systems: a review. Plant Soil, Berlin, v.267, n.1e 2, p.191–206, 2004.

USEPA. Toxicological review cerium oxide and cerium compounds. United States

Environment Protection Agency. 2009. http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/1018tr.pdf

USEPA. Rare earth elements : A review of production , processing , recycling , and associated environmental issues. 2012. http://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/P100EUBC.pdf

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Metal prices in the United States through 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report ,2012–5188. Reston, VA, 2013.

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Mineral commodity summaries 2015: U.S. Geological Survey. Reston, VA: USGS, 2016.

WANG, L. et al. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice. Chemosphere, Oxford, v.112, p.355–61, 2014.

XIONG, B. K. Application of rare earths in Chinese agriculture and their perspectives of development. In: Rare earths in agricultural sciences. Carlon South: Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering, p. 3–9, 1995.

XU, X. K. et al. Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals infield-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer. Science Total Environment, Amsterdam, v. 293, p. 97–105, 2002.

ZAICHICK, S. et al.. Accumulation of rare earth elements in human bone within the lifespan. Metallomics, v. 3, p:186-194, 2011.

ZHU, W., et al. Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. , v.104, p:1-8, 2005.

ZHUANG, M., et al. Chemosphere Con-centrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mi-ning area in Shandong , China. Chemos-phere, v.168, p:578–582, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.023

ZHANG, S.Z. ; SHAN, X.Q. Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application. Environ. Pollut., v. 112, p. 395-405, 2001.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5892/st.v4i1.6154


  • Não há apontamentos.




ISSN 2526-690X